Teste seus conhecimentos sobre os falsos cognatos com o simulado online de Inglês curso Enem Gratuito! São apenas 10 questões com resposta na hora e dicas para você estudar!
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Pergunta 1 de 10
Read the following passage and answer the question
Roraima is an interesting mountain located in the Guiana Highlands. The peak actually shares the border with Venezuela, Brazil, and Guyana, but the mountain is almost always approached from the Venezuela side. The Brazil and Guyana sides are much more difficult. The mountain’s highest point is Maverick Rock which is at and on the Venezuela side.
http://www.summitpost.org/monte-roraima/151790 acess on 01/09/2015.
Mark the alternative which contains a FALSE COGNATE:
Pergunta 2 de 10
Drugs From Nature, Then and Now
Long before the first towns were built, before written language was invented, and even before plants were cultivated for food, the basic human desires to relieve pain and prolong life fueled the search for medicines. No one knows for sure what the earliest humans did to treat their ailments, but they probably sought cures in the plants, animals, and minerals around them.
Nature’s Medicine Cabinet
Times have changed, but more than half of the world’s population still relies entirely on plants for medicines, and plants supply the active ingredients of most traditional medical products. Plants have also served as the starting point for countless drugs on the market today. Researchers generally agree that natural products from plants and other organisms have been the most consistently successful source for ideas for new drugs, since nature is a master chemist. Drug discovery scientists often refer to these ideas as “leads,” and chemicals that have desirable properties in lab tests are called lead compounds.
Relatively speaking, very few species of living things on Earth have actually been seen and named by scientists. Many of these unidentified organisms aren’t necessarily lurking in uninhabited places. A few years ago, for instance, scientists identified a brand-new species of millipede in a rotting leaf pile in New York City’s Central Park, an area visited by thousands of people every day.
Scientists estimate that Earth is home to at least 250,000 different species of plants, and that up to 30 million species of insects crawl or fly somewhere around the globe. Equal numbers of species of fungi, algae, and bacteria probably also exist. Despite these vast numbers, chemists have tested only a few of these organisms to see whether they harbor some sort of medically useful substance.
Pharmaceutical chemists seek ideas for new drugs not only in plants, but in any part of nature where they may find valuable clues. This includes searching for organisms from what has been called the last unexplored frontier: the seawater that blankets nearly three-quarters of Earth.
(Disponível em: http://publications.nigms.nih.gov/medbydesign/chapter3.html).
Assinale a(s) questão (ões) verdadeira (s) de acordo com o texto acima:
Pergunta 3 de 10
Mark in the answer sheet the sum of the CORRECT proposition(s) in which there is a false cognate (―false friend‖) and a real cognate (―transparent word‖), respectively.
Pergunta 4 de 10
The Ecology of Disease
There’s a term biologists and economists use these days — ecosystem services — which refers to the many ways nature supports the human endeavor. Forests filter the water we drink, for example, and birds and bees pollinate crops, both of which have substantial economic as well as biological value.
If we fail to understand and take care of the natural world, it can cause a breakdown of these systems and come back to haunt us in ways we know little about. A critical example is a developing model of infectious disease that shows that most epidemics — AIDS, Ebola, West Nile, SARS, Lyme disease and hundreds more that have occurred over the last several decades — don’t just happen. They are a result of things people do to nature.
Disease is largely an environmental issue. Sixty percent of emerging infectious diseases that affect humans are zoonotic — they originate in animals. And more than two-thirds of those originate in wildlife.
Teams of veterinarians and conservation biologists are in the midst of a global effort with medical doctors and epidemiologists to understand the “ecology of disease.” It is part of a project called Predict, which is financed by the United States Agency for International Development. Experts are trying to figure out, based on how people alter the landscape — with a new farm or road, for example — where the next diseases are likely to spill over into humans and how to spot them when they do emerge, before they can spread. They are gathering blood, saliva and other samples from high-risk wildlife species to create a library of viruses so that if one does infect humans, it can be more quickly identified. And they are studying ways of managing forests, wildlife and livestock to prevent diseases from leaving the woods and becoming the next pandemic.
It isn’t only a public health issue, but an economic one. The World Bank has estimated that a severe influenza pandemic, for example, could cost the world economy $3 trillion.
The problem is exacerbated by how livestock are kept in poor countries, which can magnify diseases borne by wild animals. A study released earlier this month by the International Livestock Research Institute found that more than two million people a year are killed by diseases that spread to humans from wild and domestic animals.
All in all, the knowledge gained in the last couple of years about emerging diseases should allow us to sleep a little easier, says Dr. Epstein, the EcoHealth veterinarian. “For the first time,” he said, “there is a coordinated effort in 20 countries to develop an early warning system for emerging zoonotic outbreaks.”
Adapted from: http://www.nytimes.com, July, 2012.
False cognates are words which look similar but have different meanings in two languages. There are false cognates in
Pergunta 5 de 10
THE MILLENIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are the most broadly supported comprehensive and specific development goals the world has ever agreed upon. These eight time-bound goals provide concrete, numerical benchmarks for tackling extreme poverty in its many dimensions. They include goals and targets on income poverty, hunger, maternal and child mortality, disease, inadequate shelter, gender inequality, environmental degradation and the Global Partnership for Development.
Adopted by world leaders in the year 2000 and set to be achieved by 2015, the MDGs are both global and local, tailored by each country to suit specific development needs. They provide a framework for the entire international community to work together towards a common end — making sure that human development reaches everyone, everywhere. If these goals are achieved, world poverty will be cut by half, tens of millions of lives will be saved, and billions more people will have the opportunity to benefit from the global economy.
Here is the complete list of the MDGs:
- Eradicate extreme poverty.
- Achieve universal primary education.
- Promote gender equality and empower women.
- Reduce child mortality.
- Improve maternal health.
- Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases.
- Ensure environmental sustainability.
- Develop a global partnership for development.
(Adaptado de MDG Strategies. Disponível em http://www.beta.undp.org. Acessado em 28/08/2011)
Analise o que se afirma a respeito dos vocábulos retirados do texto.
I. Comprehensive e supported são palavras falsas cognatas.
II. Develop, improve, make e ensure são verbos regulares.
III. Numerical, inadequate, environmental e global são adjetivos.
IV. If (“If these goals are achieved…”) é um conector que indica condição.
V. Towards é verbo, está no simple present e significa concordar.
Somente estão CORRETOS
Pergunta 6 de 10
American Disability Association. Available on: <http://creativecriminals.
com/ambient/ada-mount-everest/>. Access on: Nov. 25, 2011.
About the sentence “help build more facilities adapted for disabled people”, it is correct to affirm that
Pergunta 7 de 10
1 A team of scientists has shown that the glaciers in 2 one of Asia’s major mountain ranges are defying the 3 general tendency towards shrinkage, and have in fact 4 expanded slightly over the last few years. The range in 5 question is the Karakoram, which straddles Pakistan, 6 India and China on the north-western end of the 7 Himalayas.
8 Glacial decline and the gradual loss of polar ice 9 caps has been a worrying trend over recent decades, 10 but scientists have been aware of an apparently curious 11 anomaly with the Karakoram, which contains some of 12 the world’s biggest mountains including the second 13 highest, K2. It has about 20,000 square kilometers of 14 glaciers, accounting for three percent of the total area of 15 ice outside the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets.
16 Now a team of French scientists has carried out a 17 detailed survey over a large area of the range using 18 sophisticated remote-sensing measurements. Writing in 19 the scientific journal, Nature, they say they found that in 20 the first years of this century the Karakoram’s glaciers 21 had actually expanded by a small amount, while in the 22 neighboring Himalayas they’d been shrinking. 23 It’s unclear why this is happening, but it seems that by 24 a quirk in the weather pattern that’s not fully understood, 25 less heat is being delivered to the Karakoram and the 26 mountains are receiving heavier falls of snow.
The only false cognate from the text is in alternative
Pergunta 8 de 10
That’s the way the cookie crumbles
One reason dieting does not work
Sep 2nd 2010
(1) IF, by chance, you are served an unusually large slice of pizza, compared with what others appear to be getting, would that experience incline you, some minutes later, to eat more cookies or fewer when platefuls came your way? That depends, it turns out, on whether you are on a diet. Those who are not eat fewer cookies, whereas those who are see the excessive pizza as a licence to pig out. It is a demonstration of what Janet Polivy, a psychologist at the University of Toronto, refers to as the “what the hell” effect—a phenomenon familiar from real life to which Dr Polivy has given scientific respectability, most recently in a paper published in the latest edition of Appetite.
(2) Dr Polivy and her colleagues recruited 106 female undergraduates on the pretext of rating a new brand of cookie. The women were told not to eat for three hours before the experiment, so that they would all be tested with the same level of hunger. An identical light lunch, it was explained, would be served to all.
(3) And the lunches were, indeed, identical in size—a standard slice of pizza—but the women were encouraged to believe that they were not. Some of the volunteers got to see another person’s slice, just before it was carried into that person’s separate test room. The slice in question, actually carried by a member of the team, was either one-third larger or one-third smaller than the actual one that the experimental subject was given to eat.
(4) After polishing off the pizza, the volunteers were presented with three generous platters of oatmeal-raisin, chocolate-chip and double-chocolate-chip cookies, and asked to rate them. They could eat as many, they were told, as they needed to reach their conclusion. What they did not know was that the plates were weighed before and after their foray into the test room, so the researchers knew to the crumb what the women had consumed.
(5) At various points, the volunteers were given questionnaires. One focused on mood, and inquired about feelings like anxiety, sadness, depression and anger. Another asked about eating habits, including questions on how often the volunteer dieted, how much time she spent thinking about food and whether she ate sensibly in front of others only to splurge when alone.
(6) People who had not seen anyone else’s pizza slice and those who had been given what appeared to be a small slice of pizza went on to eat the same amount of cookies. But the behaviour of those who thought they had been given a large slice diverged. Non-dieters ate fewer cookies and dieters ate more.
(7) Dr Polivy’s guess is that non-dieters perceive that they may have overeaten, so they feel as though they should take it easy on the dessert. Dieters, on the contrary, feel that the large slice has blown their diet (and, even better, that this was not their fault), so they may as well make the most of it, and dig into the cookies.
(8) Proving that is hard. Ask people about this sort of thing and they will lie—even to themselves. What the study does do, though, is add to the evidence that dieting is harmful. People who diet deliberately ignore cues like hunger and satiety. As a consequence, over time, they seem to lose the ability to use them. Instead, eating falls under their conscious control. And that is no place for an instinct.
The option that contains an example of a false cognate is:
Pergunta 9 de 10
ele acabou descobrindo o Word, corresponde, em inglês, a
Pergunta 10 de 10
All of words in each group are false cognates; EXCEPT one.