Substantivos (no inglês, nouns) são palavras que dão nomes a seres, objetos, lugares, qualidades, sentimentos, entre outros. Vem com a gente revisar os substantivos contáveis e incontáveis para gabaritar as questões de Inglês no Enem e nos Vestibulares!
Há várias formas de classificarmos os substantivos na língua inglesa. Uma delas é a que estudaremos nesta aula: substantivos contáveis e incontáveis (countable nouns ou uncountable nouns).
Você conhece a diferença entre eles? Sabe quando utilizá-los? Não? Então revise inglês nesta aula do Curso Enem Gratuito e arrebente no Enem e nos vestibulares!
Countable nouns – substantivos contáveis
Os countable nouns são substantivos que podem ser contados e enumerados. São utilizados tanto na forma singular quanto na plural.
No singular, podem ser precedidos pelo número “one”, pelo artigo definido “the”, pelos artigos indefinidos “a” e “an”, pelos pronomes demonstrativos “this” e “that” e pelos pronomes possessivos (my, your etc).
No plural, podem ser precedidos por números, pelo artigo definido “the”, pelos pronomes demonstrativos “these” e “those”, pelos pronomes possessivos (my, your, etc.) e por “some”, “many”, “a lot of” e “few”.
Exemplos de substantivos contáveis
Para compreender melhor os substantivos contáveis, veja os exemplos a seguir:
- one book – two books (um livro, dois livros)
- the student – the students (o estudante, os estudantes)
- an apple – some apples (uma maçã, algumas maçãs)
- that house – those houses (aquela casa, aquelas casas)
- my daughter – my daughters (minha filha, minhas filhas)
- many days (muitos dias)
- a lot of jobs (muitos empregos)
- few children (poucas crianças)
- a few dollars (alguns dólares)
Resumo de sustantivos contáveis e incontáveis
Veja a diferença entre os substantivos contáveis e incontáveis e como utilizá-los. Confira agora, para fixar bem este conteúdo, um resumo de introdução com o professor de inglês Eduardo Asbun, do canal do Curso Enem Gratuito:
Uncountable nouns – substantivos incontáveis
Os uncountable nouns ou substantivos incontáveis são aqueles que não podem ser contados ou enumerados, sendo, portanto, somente usados na sua forma singular. Designam substâncias que são percebidas como uma massa homogênea, ideias abstratas e atividades.
Por conta dessas características, não podemos usar números ou “a”/”an” antes dos substantivos incontáveis. Mas eles podem ser precedidos pelo artigo definido “the”, pelos pronomes demonstrativos “this” e “that”, pelos pronomes possessivos (my, your etc) e pelas seguintes palavras: “some”, “any”, “no”, “little”, “much” e “a lot of”.
Exemplos de substantivos incontáveis
Veja alguns exemplos de substantivos incontáveis:
- water (água)
- salt (sal)
- money (dinheiro)
- music (música)
- bread (pão)
- coffee (café)
- jam (geléia)
- oil (óleo)
- cheese (queijo)
- rice (arroz)
- paper (papel)
- advice (conselho)
- information (informação)
- furniture (mobília)
- luggage (bagagem)
- news (notícias)
- hair (cabelo)
Observe que, em português, usamos alguns destes substantivos como contáveis. Dizemos, por exemplo, “Por favor, me dê uma água”.
Só que, em inglês, não podemos dizer “Please, give me a water”.
Quais são as opções então? Podemos dizer:
- “Please give me a glass of water” (Por favor, me dê um copo d’água.)
- “Please give me a bottle of water” (Por favor, me dê uma garrafa d’água.)
- “Please give me some water” (Por favor, me dê um pouco d’água.)
Vamos ver como ficaria a lista de exemplos acima se quiséssemos “contar” estas coisas?
Olha só! Veja abaixo alguns exemplos que oferecem apenas algumas das inúmeras possibilidades de combinações para estas palavras:
- salt – A teaspoon of salt. (Uma colher de chá de sal.)
- money – 200 dollars (Duzentos dólares.)
- music – 2 songs (2 músicas)
- bread – A loaf of bread, a slice of bread. (Um filão de pão, uma fatia de pão.)
- coffee – A cup of coffee. (Uma xícara de café.)
- jam – A pot of jam. (Um pote de geléia.)
- oil – A bottle of oil, a drop of oil. (Uma garrafa de óleo, uma gota de óleo.)
- cheese – A piece of cheese, a slice of cheese. (Um pedaço de queijo ou um queijo, uma fatia de queijo.)
- rice – A bowl of rice, a bag of rice, a grain of rice. (Uma tigela de arroz, um saco de arroz, um grão de arroz.)
- paper – A sheet of paper, a ream of paper. (Uma folha de papel, uma resma de papel.)
- advice – A piece of advice. some advice. (Um conselho. Algum conselho.)
- information – A piece of information. Some information. (Uma informação. Alguma informação.)
- furniture – A piece of furniture. (Uma mobília.)
- luggage – 2 pieces of luggage. (Duas bagagens.)
- news – A bit of news, some news, a piece of news. (Obs.: Esta palavra é sempre usada com o verbo no singular. Por exemplo: The news is good. – As notícias são boas.)
- hair – Este último é interessante. Como substantivo incontável, significa cabelo, mas se usado como substantivo contável, adquire o significado de “fio(s) de cabelo”. Veja: Her hair is black. Whenever she finds a gray hair, she pulls it out. (Seu cabelo é preto. Sempre que ela acha um fio grisalho, ela o arranca.)
Olha a dica: as diferenças de When e While
Elas são muito parecidas. Mas, na hora de fazer uma questão de interpretação de textos, isso muda tudo. Bora ver com a professora Anais, do canal do Curso Enem Graruito:
Exercício sobre substantivos contáveis e incontáveis do inglês
E para finalizar, vamos reforçar o que você aprendeu com este exercício a seguir. “Bora” treinar!
– Corrija as orações abaixo:
1. Please give me two waters.
2. Can you give me an information?
3. Mary lost two luggages on her last trip to Paris.
4. I always eat a bread for breakfast.
5. I love her musics!
6. I need a paper to write my shopping list.
Todas as orações acima contem substantivos incontáveis; portanto, não podemos usar numerais ou “a” ou “an” na frente destes substantivos. Em algumas das orações acima, podemos corrigir simplesmente trocando o numeral ou “a” ou “an” por some ou usando uma expressão partitiva. Outras já pedem troca de palavras. Vamos ver como fica a correção.
1. Please give me two bottles of water.
Please give me some water.
Please give me two glasses of water.
2. Can you give me some information?
3. Mary lost two pieces of luggage on her last trip to Paris.
4. I always eat some bread for breakfast.
I always eat a piece of bread for breakfast.
I always eat a slice of bread for breakfast.
5. I love her music.
I love her songs!
6. I need some paper to write my shopping list.
I need a sheet of paper to write my shopping list.
Complemente seus estudos com o nosso simulado sobre substantivos contáveis e incontáveis:
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UTNE READER. nº 32, March/April 1989, Minneapolis, MN, p. 133.
Sobre os termos indicados abaixo, é INCORRETO afirmar:
COCONUT TREE, COCO PALM
A thousand years7 ago, the coconut tree7 did not even exist in Tahiti. It was the pioneering Polynesians who first7 brought this plant1 with them in their migrations. A tree of life2 in every sense of the phrase12, its nut supplies12 water, milk and edible3 pulp; its “heart” is eaten in salads; its trunk8 serves as framework9 for Tahitian huts10, and its palms are woven4 as roofing11.
Then14, of course, there is the coconut which14, when cut In15 two and dried in the sun, produces oil. Plait5 three blades of grass6 and dip13 into15 this oil, light13… And you have a lamp. A lamp which not so15 very long ago was still used throughout14 the islands.
Nouns in English can be divided into countable or uncountable (e.g.: apple X water). In order to indicate some kind of “measurement” in the case of uncountable nouns, another noun is required (e.g.: glasses or liters of water). Accordingly, the expression below that is equivalent to the structure blades of grass (ref.6) is
NUTTY FOR THE DRAWING BOARD (PART I) About to turn 75, author and cartoonist Ziraldo collects honors and says he is in love with his work. Ziraldo Alves Pinto contradicts the legend that people from Minas Gerais don´t talk too much. Born in the city of Caratinga, in October 1932, the author of one of the greatest editorial successes in Brazil, the children´s book The Nutty Boy, from 1980, lets loose to talk about Blank I passion for drawing and for the art of putting ideas on paper. Full of projects, Ziraldo says that he doesn´t plan to stop soon. Happy, he celebrates innumerous honors which he has received in 2007, when he turns 75 years old and completes more than 50 years in his career.
There are exhibitions that show his talent as movie poster, designer, cartoonist, comic strip writer, and illustrator. Ziraldo was also honored with an extensive display in the 18th Salão Carioca de Humor, which ended in April.
Ziraldo, who has already sold almost 10 million books, is the author of the first national comic magazine written by a single author, Pererê´s Gang. But his first success in children´s literature was the book Flicts (1969), about a color that can´t find its place in the world. (…)
Examples of countable nouns are:
INVENTING THE FUTURE
1Imagine a computer that will recognize faces of people and help you to remember their 2names, or a smart car that will wake up the driver when he is falling asleep at the wheel. 3Scientists and engineers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Media Lab believe 4all this and more will soon be possible. Projects like smart cars, smart houses, wearable 5computers and virtual pet dogs may contain the seeds of future innovations that will make life 6safer, easier, healthier or simply more fun. Scientists and engineers are literally inventing the 7future.
8A car that will alert drivers to potential problems or wake up the driver if he is getting 9sleepy seems like a futuristic fantasy, but the scientists and engineers at the MIT Media Lab are 10working to make this dream a reality. A computer in the car will recognize impending signs of 11trouble and help prevent accidents.
12Computers in your shoes, clothing or eyeglasses may seem like science fiction, but on the 13MIT campus it is already happening. In fact, MIT students wear computer all the time. One day 14soon, you will put on your computer instead of working at a desk. In some visions of the future, 15keyboards and the passive boxes that house the microprocessor will completely disappear. 16Computers in the future will also be quite different in brain power and applications from what 17we use today. You will probably talk to your future computer and it may even remind you of 18appointments and assignments or the names and faces of people you meet.
19The MIT Media Lab is a dream factory where scientists and engineers play with 20technology. The lab explorers such concepts as virtual reality, artificial intelligence, 21communications and other computer applications, from education to entertainment. The 22activities of the MIT visionary pioneers of the digital revolution are part of an integrated 23approach to technology. Some of their research projects may seem quite extraordinary, but they 24basically require just the creativity of the most powerful thinking machine on Earth: the human 25brain.
Adapted from Science American Frontiers.
http://www.pbs.org /safarchive/4_class. Accessed August, 2009.
The text is full of grammatical elements that compose its structure to offer a plain reading comprehension. Based on this idea and in the text I, judge the CORRECT following statements:
Music industry may seek salvation in ‘all you can eat’ downloads
Things have moved on a little since the days when the greatest threat to the music industry was teenagers furtively slipping blank tapes into ghetto blasters* to snatch the odd song from the 5radiowaves.
Today’s young people, a new report suggests, are every bit as passionate about music as their predecessors. But their love of a good tune is matched only by their proficiency at obtaining it 10illegally and their reluctance to pay for it.
According to UK Music, the industry needs to fundamentally rethink the way it deals with young music lovers – ideally by offering them as much music as they can download for a fixed fee.
* ghetto blaster: a large radio and tape recorder that can be carried around, and is often played very loudly in public places.
(Adaptação do texto disponível em
<http:www.guardian.co.uk>. Acesso em 10/08/2009).
Choose the alternative(s) in which the information about the words from the text is correct.
Brazil police occupy Rio favela in World Cup operation
Brazilian security forces have occupied one of Rio de Janeiro’s biggest slums as part of a major crackdown ahead of the 2014 World Cup and 2016 Olympics.
Some 800 police and special forces moved into the Mangueira shantytown, without needing to fire a shot, having announced the raid in advance.
The slum – or favela – is close to Rio’s famous Maracana stadium, where the World Cup final will be played.
The pre-dawn operation involved armoured vehicles and helicopters.
According to the newspaper, O Globo, leaflets were thrown out of the helicopters, some with photos of wanted criminals.
Others were printed with the police special forces’ telephone number so that residents could pass on information about drugs traffickers or weapons.
BBC Brazil correspondent Paulo Cabral says most of Mangueira’s residents co-operated with the operation, as they want to rid the area of drug dealers.
He says that Rio’s authorities are making an effort to gain the trust of those living in the slums, who – after decades of abuse – have got used to seeing the police as their enemy.
Mangueira – home to one of Rio’s most famous samba schools – is the 18th favela that the authorities have occupied recently.
Adapted from : http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-latin-america-13833037
Mark the noun that does NOT have the same plural form as in residents:
Arandir (numa alucinação) – Dália, faz o seguinte. Olha o seguinte: diz à Selminha. (violento) Diz que, em toda minha vida, a única coisa que salva é o beijo no asfalto. Pela primeira vez. Dália, escuta! Pela primeira vez, na vida! Por um momento, eu me senti bom! (furioso) Eu me senti quase, nem sei! Escuta, escuta! Quando eu te vi no banheiro, eu não fui bom, entende? Desejei você. Naquele momento, você devia ser a irmã nua. E eu desejei. Saí logo, mas desejei a cunhada. Na praça da Bandeira, não. Lá, eu fui bom. É lindo! É lindo, eles não entendem. Lindo beijar quem está morrendo! (grita) Eu não me arrependo! Eu não me arrependo!
Dália – Selminha te odeia! (Arandir volta para a cunhada, cambaleante. Passa a mão na boca encharcada.)
Arandir (com voz estrangulada) – Odeia. (muda de tom) Por isso é que recusou. Recusou o meu beijo. Eu quis beijar e ela negou. Negou a boca. Não quis o meu beijo.
Dália – Eu quero!
Arandir (atônito) – Você?
Dália (sofrida) – Selminha não te beija, mas eu.
Arandir (contido) – Você é uma criança. (Dália aperta entre as mãos o rosto de Arandir.)
Arandir – Dália. (Dália beija-o, de leve, nos lábios.)
Dália – Te beijei.
Arandir (maravilhado) – Menina!
Dália (quase sem voz) – Agora me beija. Você. Beija.
Arandir (desprende-se com violência) – Eu amo Selminha!
Dália (desesperada) – Eu me ofereço e. Selminha não veio e eu vim.
Arandir – Dália, eu mato tua irmã. Amo tanto que. (muda de tom) Eu ia pedir. Pedir à Selminha para morrer comigo.
Dália – Morrer?
Arandir (desesperado) – Eu e Selminha! Mas ela não veio!
Dália (agarra o cunhado. Quase boca com boca, sôfrega) – Eu morreria.
Arandir – Comigo?
Dália (selvagem) – Contigo! Nós dois! Contigo! Eu te amo!
(RODRIGUES, Nelson. O beijo no asfalto.
Rio de Janeiro: Nova Fronteira, 1995. p. 98-100.)
The noun “kiss” (beijo) and verb “kiss” (beijar) appear numerous times in text in both the title of the work, as well as in the dialogue between the two characters. Although the verb “kiss” can be used as an intransitive verb, it is generally used, such as in the excerpt from O beijo no asfalto, as a transitive verb.
Recalling that a transitive verb is an action verb that takes an object, which of the following sentence or sentences exemplifies the use of a transitive verb?
I. John ran quickly.
II. Susie kicked the ball.
III. My uncle broke the window.
IV. I wrote a letter to my friend.
Choose from the following options:
THE HUNGER GAMES: MOCKINGJAY (2014)
The worldwide phenomenon of The Hunger Games continues to set the world on fire with The Hunger Games: Mockingjay – Part 1, which finds Katniss Everdeen (Jennifer Lawrence) in District 13 after she literally shatters the games forever. Under the leadership of President Coin (Julianne Moore) and the advice of her trusted friends, Katniss spreads her wings as she fights to save Peeta (Josh Hutcherson) and a nation moved by her courage. The Hunger Games: Mockingjay – Part 1 is directed by Francis Lawrence from a screenplay by Danny Strong and Peter Craig and produced by Nina Jacobson’s Color Force in tandem with producer Jon Kilik. The novel on which the film is based is the third in a trilogy written by Suzanne Collins that has over 65 million copies in print in the U.S. alone. (c) Lionsgate
Rating: PG-13 (for intense sequences of violence and action, some disturbing images and thematic material)
Genre: Drama , Action & Adventure , Science Fiction & Fantasy
Directors: Francis Lawrence (II) , Francis Lawrence
Writers: Danny Strong , Peter Craig
In Theaters: Nov 21, 2014 Wide
Runtime: 2 hr. 5 min.
Lionsgate Films – Official Site
Available at: http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/the_hunger_
games_mockingjay_part_1/. Access on: November 23rd 2014.
Some suffixes are used in order to create a noun from a verb.
Choose the alternative which exclusively presents verbs which were turned into nouns by adding a suffix.
YOU´LL LOUVRE IT!
By Lou Lumenick
RON Howards´s splendid “The Da Vinci Code” is the Holy Grail of summer blockbusters: a crackling, fast-moving thriller that´s every bit as brainy and irresistible as Dan Brown´s controversial bestseller. After being kept under close wraps by Sony, the hotly anticipated film was finally screened for critics yesterday before its premiere tonight at the Cannes Film Festival and its worldwide opening on Friday.
It´s the best thing that either Howard and Tom Hanks – perfectly cast as Brown´s hero, Harvard symbologist Robert Langdon – Blank I , since their last collaboration, “Apollo 13”, a decade ago. (…)
Even those who haven´t read the book know that conspiracy involves Opus Dei, a real-life prelature of the Roman Catholic Church, which has condemned the novel as libelous and blasphemous.
While the movie doesn´t seriously deviate from Brown´s premises, sometimes that premise is held at arm´s length: “We´ve been dragged into a world of people who think this stuff is real,” as Langdon puts it. While we´re not going to reveal major spoilers, the few people who haven´t read the book might want to stop reading now if they want to derive the fullest enjoyment from Blank II “The Da Vinci Code”. (…)
Howard keeps the narrative taut, and Akiva Goldsman´s screenplay is a model adaptation that hews closely to the essentials of Brown´s already cinematic novel without being slavish. And this lavish production almost entirely avoids the schmaltz that Howard and Goldsman ladled over their previous collaborations, “A Beautiful Mind” and “Cinderella Man.”
At the movie´s heart is Hanks, who is sympathetic, funny and immensely watchable as the rumpled Langdon. He´s well matched by Tautou, who in a difficult role shows the most screen presence since her breakthrough performance in “Amelie.”
“The only thing that matters is what you believe,” – Langdon tells Sophie at one point. It´s also the creed of “The Da Vinci Code,” which is far more interested in being a rare summer movie that you won´t forget an hour after leaving the theater than questioning the basis of anybody´s religious faith.
We can find a compound noun in:
On Sept. 20, in all likelihood, Shinzo Abe will be elected president of Japan’s ruling Liberal Democratic Party – a victory that will guarantee his election, a few days later, as prime minister. Yasuo Fukuda, his closest rival, had been campaigning as the dovish alternative to the hawkish Abe. But then North Korea fired a clutch of missiles into the sea of Japan, shifting the balance decisively in favor of Shinzo Abe, who first transformed himself into a national figure in 2002 by harshly indicting North Korea for its abductions of innocent Japanese citizens in the 1970s.
What will the world see when the cameras are finally trained on Abe? The problem is that no one – not even the Japanese – really knows. That’s caused observers to latch onto1 what little they do know about his ambitions.
He’s got at least two big goals, and they’re both risky. The first is revising the Constitution to eliminate Japan’s pacifist postwar military tradition, and the second, which could be a function of the first, is defying China’s bid for regional preeminence. A generation ago, the first idea would have struck mainstream Japanese voters as irresponsibly radical; the second even now strikes many as fraught with2 uncertainty.
This summer he shocked many of his compatriots when he responded to the North Korean missile tests by suggesting that it might be time to consider the option of pre-emptive strikes to prevent future launches. But Abe subsequently backtracked, and lately he’s adopted a softer tone.
Surprises could be in the offing. Rumor has it, for example, that Abe’s aides are busily working to set up summit meetings with the leaders3 of China and South Korea, in a bid for a fresh diplomat start with those neighbors. But no one knows how a Prime Minister Abe would handle himself in a crisis. If you want to get to know Shinzo Abe, wait until the real work begins.
(from Asia’s Mystery Man in NEWSWEEK, Sept.18, 2006)
The agentive suffix ER is added to the verb lead to form the noun leader (ref.3). It can be added to all the following items, except