Um dos assuntos referentes à gramática mais frequentes no Enem e nos vestibulares é a classificação das palavras em sua classe gramatical. Aprenda a reconhecê-las nesta revisão do Curso Enem Gratuito!
Vamos estudar as classes de palavras com esta aula de inglês para o Enem!
“They are building a tower.”
(Eles estão construindo uma torre.)
Na frase acima, imagine que precisamos classificar a palavra “building”. Olhando o contexto, entendemos que um grupo está fazendo algo, no caso estão construindo uma torre. Temos presença do pronome (they), de um verbo auxiliar (are) e a ação que o sujeito faz (building). Como esta palavra é a ação realizada pelo grupo, podemos classificá-la como verbo.
Veja que ao analisarmos a frase acima, acabamos classificando algumas palavras do inglês! Note que seguimos vários passos para descobrirmos as classes das palavras. Sendo assim, para interpretar um texto e mandar bem nas questões do Enem e dos vestibulares, você não pode se afobar e olhar diretamente pra palavra e tentar classificá-la, é preciso compreender o contexto.
Classificar as palavras pode te ajudar a entender uma frase e facilitar a sua tradução. Você sabe reconhecer as classes de palavras no inglês? Não? Então veja esta aula para gabaritar as questões de inglês no Enem e nos vestibulares. Vem com a gente!
Classificando as palavras em inglês – primeiro passo para interpretar um texto
Para encontrarmos a classe de uma palavra presente em uma frase, primeiro precisamos entender a ideia que a frase está passando. A partir disso, vamos decifrando alguns elementos, até chegar na palavra que queremos, e em como ela influencia as outras palavras ao seu redor.
Muitas palavras podem ser usadas em diferentes assuntos, e por consequência, possuírem diferentes classificações gramaticais, dependendo do contexto. Olhe outro exemplo com a palavra building:
“That is a huge building”
(Aquele é um gigantesco prédio.)
Agora, no contexto da frase acima, “building” não é mais uma ação. Neste caso “building” é algo sobre o que estamos falando. “Building” aqui é um substantivo, que significa prédio. Assim é possível notar que precisamos sempre levar em consideração o contexto. Uma mesma palavra pode ser usada de diversas maneiras no inglês.
O que fizemos acima é uma análise morfológica. Com ela vemos as classes gramaticais que são utilizadas na frase. Também existe a análise sintática, onde vemos a função de cada palavra numa oração, por exemplo quando queremos identificar o sujeito e objeto de uma oração.
Principais classes de palavras do inglês
Substantivos ou Nouns: As palavras mais fáceis de serem identificadas em uma frase são os substantivos, que em inglês chamamos de nouns. Nouns servem para dar nome a algo, seja um animal, uma coisa, um lugar, até nomes próprios.
Aprofunde seus estudos nos substantivos contáveis e incontáveis!
Pronomes: Os pronomes servem para substituir um nome. Ao invés de repetir algum substantivo ao longo de um texto, podemos usar um pronome. Existem diversos tipos de pronomes, mas de modo geral, todos têm a mesma função de um substantivo em uma oração e são normalmente utilizados para evitar a repetição. Os mais comuns e fáceis de se reconhecer são os Pronomes do Sujeito, que são “I, You, He, She, It, We, You e They”. São chamados em inglês de pronouns.
Adjetivos: são palavras que modificam, descrevem ou dão características para substantivos. Em inglês os chamamos de adjectives. É importante notar que adjetivos modificam APENAS nomes, sejam eles substantivos ou pronomes. Eles podem indicar diversas coisas, inclusive posse. Observe:
“This is my car” (este é o meu carro.)
Veja que o pronome indica que o carro não é um carro qualquer, é o “meu” carro.
Não confunda os adjetivos com os advérbios (adverbs). Os dois possuem funções semelhantes. Mas, enquanto os adjetivos modificam substantivos, advérbios modificam verbos, adjetivos e outros advérbios. Os advérbios podem, então, dar diversas características diferentes, como frequência, intensidade, modo e lugar.
Muitas vezes os advérbios possuem a terminação –ly na palavra (podemos traduzir como o sufixo –mente no português), como em “quietly” (quietamente) e “incredibly” (incrivelmente), mas não é obrigatório.
Verbos: Os verbos, ou verbs, podem indicar ou uma ação, ou um estado. Para encontrar o verbo em uma frase, basta procurar a ação realizada pelo sujeito, ou então que palavra indica a condição do sujeito. Veja:
The player kicked the ball.
(O jogador chutou a bola.)
I am happy.
(Eu estou feliz.)
Preposições: As preposições servem para indicar a relação entre substantivos ou pronomes e outras palavras em uma oração. Prepositions normalmente aparecem logo antes de pronomes e substantivos e podem indicar diversas coisas:
– Podem indicar a posição/local de algo/alguém. Veja o exemplo:
The ball is under the bed
(A bola está embaixo da cama.)
– Podem indicar o tempo em que algo acontece. Veja na frase a seguir:
I woke up at 6am.
(Eu acordei as 6 da manhã.)
– Podem ainda indicar a maneira como algo é feito:
I went to school by bus
(Eu fui para a escola de ônibus)
Existem muitas outras classes gramaticais que são exploradas nas aulas do Curso Enem Gratuito, mas estas são as principais e as mais cobradas em vestibulares! Só para finalizar, vamos dar uma olhada nesse último caso para botar em um holofote a importância do contexto:
Pense na palavra “child”. Significa criança, certo? Seria então um substantivo? Nem sempre. Veja os exemplos:
The child is happy.
(A criança está feliz.)
This is child labour.
(Isto é trabalho infantil.)
“Child”, como você pode observar nos exemplos, pode ser tanto um substantivo (primeira frase) quanto um adjetivo (segunda frase).
E aí? Conseguiu aprender mais sobre a importância da classificação das palavras na interpretação de um texto?
Para reforçar ainda mais o conteúdo, veja a seguinte videoaula:
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Pergunta 1 de 10
(for Henri Rousseau le Douanier)
The sun is shining outside
Henri Rousseau (Gentil Rousseau)
The sky is blue
like your skies
I want to paint the salad
on the table
bright crisp green red purple
lettuce and radishes, ham and tomatoes
Paint them like your jungles
I want to paint
All things bright and beautiful
All salads great and small
I want to make
Blue skies bluer
Green grass greener
Pink flowers brighter
Which of the following groups of words from TEXT consists only of nouns:
Pergunta 2 de 10
A diversified cultural calendar
Brazil launched its National Plan for Tourism, which, among other activities, plans to attract nine million foreign visitors in the coming years. Today the country is sought after by 3.8 million foreigners, who in their vast majority seek out the beaches of the Northeast or urban areas of the Southeast.
Another angle to be explored in this plan is business and fashion tourism. The beach/surf style exports 50 million articles/year, and the shoe industry exports 550 million pairs of shoes/year, attracting businessmen throughout the world.
In order to focus on this angle, Brazil offers an attractive and diversified calendar of fairs, exhibitions, academic events and lectures, some of which are included on the international circuit. Among other advantages, these meetings provide the possibility for investors to make contact with speakers from various areas, from NGOs to Government Enterprises, with access to up-to-date opportunities and data.
Organizing the flow
With the Caravana Brasil programme, the Brazilian Tourism Agency (Embratur) provides businessmen in the field of tourism with the possibility of getting to know about new itineraries and opportunities, in order to better present their products. Due to the migration and immigration programs which have taken place throughout istory, there is an itinerary of typical festivities in all regions, bringing together thousands of people in outdoor celebrations, from Carnival in Rio de Janeiro and Salvador to the “Boi-Bumbá” Celebrations in the North and the São João Festivities in the northest.
Making the most of these itineraries, the Federal Government supports the States by offering them publicity, promoting the tourist flow towards the respective regions while at the same time investing in the improvement of access infrastructure and financing the expansion of hotels, airports and municipal sanitation networks. In all areas of all regions, initiatives for the promotion of tourism generate jobs and income as well as providing cultural exchange between the views from inside out and from outside in.
(from: www. brasil.gov.br/inglês/about_brazil/brasil_topics/turism)
As palavras Northest, meetings e businessmen retiradas, respectivamente, do 1º, 2º e 3º parágrafos, são exemplos de:
Pergunta 3 de 10
and John Kelly
For Better or For Worse
Surprising results from the most comprehensive study of divorce in America.
For Better or For Worse presents a radically new story about the nature and consequences of divorce in America today. Debunking popular wisdom on the devastating psychological and social effects of divorce, this new story will replace the fiction with the facts derived from eminent psychologist Mavis Hetherington’s landmark study. After nearly three decades of research involving 1400 families of divorce, Hetherington puts forth a much more nuanced picture of marital breakup.
From her long-term perspective, Hetherington identifies distinct pathways into and out of divorce. She highlights three different kinds of marriages that predispose a couple to divorce and two that do not. She also pinpoints “windows of change” that allow some people to fashion the challenges of divorce into an opportunity. As the book follows families through the life process of divorce, Hetherington shows how women and girls experience divorce differently from men and boys; why single-mother/son relationships and stepfather/daughter relationships are the most difficult; why divorce presents a greater risk to adolescent children; and how mentoring and authoritative parenting can provide the needed buffering against the negative effects of divorce.
“With compelling evidence and clear ‘points to remember,’ Hetherington identifies pathways that show how parents and children lead healthy and fulfilling lives after divorce. Sure to become a classic in the field!” —Constance R. Ahrons, author of The Good Divorce; senior scholar, Council on Contemporary Families; professor emerita at the University of Southern California.
Mavis Hetherington is professor emeritus, Department of Psychology, University of Virginia. John Kelly is a writer in New York.
January 2002 / hardcover / ISBN 0-393-04862-4 / 6″ x 9″ / 320 pages / Psychology
A alternativa que contém apenas palavras usadas como verbos no texto é:
Pergunta 4 de 10
Strategic Spending on Organic Foods
1I was reading today in The Times that organic food prices are rising. It reminded me of a really helpful list from the 2Environmental Working Group, a nonprofit research and advocacy organization, about how to be a strategic 3shopper when buying organic fruits and vegetables.
4While there is an ongoing debate about whether buying organic food really makes a difference in terms of health, 5the reality is that some consumers choose organic foods because they want to lower their exposure to pesticides. 6For those shoppers, it makes sense to know when to buy organic and which conventionally-grown foods are good 7enough because they already are low in pesticide residue.
8The Environmental Working Group tested dozens of fruits and vegetables to determine which foods are the worst 9offenders in terms of pesticide exposure. Some fruits and vegetables grown with conventional farming methods 10simply don’t absorb the pesticides. Some examples of vegetables and fruits with very low pesticide residues are 11onions, mangoes, asparagus, broccoli and eggplant. So whether you pick them up from the regular produce section 12or the organic aisle, your pesticide exposure is going to be low.
(Extraído de http://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/04/18/
Acesso em 14/09/2008.)
Sobre a função morfológica dos vocábulos no texto, assinale a afirmativa correta.
Pergunta 5 de 10
01 How do I get paid?
All money generated by click throughs or customers signing on with a program are fed into a database on the affiliated advertisers site and tallied automatically (1). The affiliated advertiser transfers, wires, mails the any money earned once an amount of 05 $50 or more has been collected.
I only want certain types of ads on my site
With most affiliate advertisers you can determine exactly what kinds of ads appear on your site. The upside is you have more control, the down side is it is more labor intensive managing the ads. When an ad is automatically generated, as is the case with 10 Google AdSence, the nature of the ad depends on the content of your page where (2) the ad is located. This means you have little or no control over the contents of the ads other than the content of your web page.
It must (3) be hard to put the ads or banners up on the site
In most cases it is a matter of cutting (4) the advertising code from the affiliated 15 advertisers site and paste into (5) your web page. No messing with images or writing copy for the advertisments.
Adapted from: http://www.bannermadness.com/articles.php Accessed on: March 25th, 2012.
Mark the correct sequence of grammar definitions from the underlined words, following the sequence of numbers (1), (2), (3), (4) e (5).
Pergunta 6 de 10
1The great Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget affirmed that children are not born with cognitive structure. He 2argued that children’s cognitive understanding of the world emerges with experience; in other words, it 3develops. Knowledge, then, is a process rather than a “a state”. A child knows or understands an object by 4interacting with it, and from this interaction she expands her ability to comprehend. According to Piaget, just 5as well as children grow and mature physically in the same basic sequence, they also develop cognitively in 6a process that is the same for all children, regardless of cultural upbringing.
7Piaget called the first stage that children go through the sensorimotor period, which extends from birth to 8around age two. The child develops a “sense” of the objects around her by her “motor”, or physical action on 9the objects. Her understanding of the world is limited to her physical actions on the objects in the world. An 10important developmental milestone during this stage is what Piaget terms object permanence. By the end of 11this stage, the infant recognizes that an object continues to exist even when she cannot see it or touch it. 12Object permanence is the beginning of the child’s awareness that people and objects exist independent from 13her, but this is only the beginning.
14The achievements of the sensorimotor stage just prepare her for the next stage, called the preoperational 15period, lasting from about age two to seven. During this stage, a child perceives and interprets the world in 16terms of self. She cannot comprehend that another person sees objects differently. She thinks other people 17see and hear what she does. Piaget describes children as being rigid in thought. They base their 18conclusions on one obvious factor or feature of an object. For instance, if a bowl of water is poured into a tall 19jar, the child will conclude that the tall jar has more water because its level is higher. But toward the end of 20this period, the child is beginning to learn about objects in a new way. For instance, she begins to 21understand that water poured from the bowl into the tall jar is still the same water; that is, an object can 22change its shape but still be the same basic object. The child is developing representational thought.
23This increasing flexibility prepares the child for what Piaget called the concrete operational period. From 24about seven to 11 years old, a child makes great strides in her cognitive development. She develops the 25ability to make mental transformations with regard to concrete objects. A child begins to comprehend the 26concepts of reversibility, compensation, addition and subtraction. Piaget uses the concept of conservation to 27illustrate this development. If you pour the water back from the tall jar to the bowl, during this stage the child 28can understand that the amount of water that was in the jar is the same as what’s in the bowl, even though 29the water levels are different. She can understand that the width of the bowl makes up – or compensates for 30– its lack of height. The child also understands that no water has been removed or added.
31In the next stage, called the formal operational period, from about 11-15 years old, the child develops 32more sophisticated reasoning abilities. She can reason now; she can see more logical relationships between 33objects and can think more systematically before acting. In other words, she can think in more abstract 34terms; she can use information from the past to predict consequences.
35Refinement of cognitive skills continues on into adulthood, but Piaget felt that the development of 36structure of thought is achieved by about age 15. After that, the content and quality of thought may develop. 37Although not all researchers in cognitive development agree with Piaget’s scheme and all of his conclusions, 38he can be credited for having a tremendous impact on our understanding of how children develop their 39understanding of the world around them. Children are not miniature adults who reason as adults do; they 40understand and interpret their environment in terms of their cognitive development. This is important to 41realize if we want to understand our children and ourselves better.
(Adapted from: MILLER, P. H. Theories of Developmental Psychology. In: SMALLEY, R. L.; RUETTEN, M. K.; KOZYREV, J. R. Refining composition skills: rhetoric and grammar. Boston: Thomson/Heinle & Heinle, 2001, p. 230-233.)
The word that functions as adjective in the text is:
Pergunta 7 de 10
Read the following poem and answer the questions:
“STOPPING BY WOODS* ON A SNOWY EVENING”
Whose woods these are I think I know.
His house is in the village though;
He will not see me stopping here
To watch his woods fill up with snow.
The woods are lovely, dark and deep.
But I have promises to keep,
And miles to go before I sleep,
And miles to go before I sleep.
woods = bosque
Which of the following groups of words consists only of adjectives:
Pergunta 8 de 10
Dance: A Constantly Evolving Tradition
By Octavio Roca
1There is no time like the present to look at the future of American 2dance. So much keeps coming, so much is left behind, and the uncertainty 3and immense promise of all that lies ahead tell us that the young century is 4witnessing a watershed in American dance history. Candid shots of American 5artists on the move reveal a wide-open landscape of dance, from classical to 6modern to postmodern and beyond.
7Each of our dance traditions carries a distinctive flavor, and each 8demands attention: the living legacies of George Balanchine and Antony 9Tudor, the ever-surprising genius of Merce Cunningham, the all-American 10exuberance of Paul Taylor, the social commitment of Bill T. Jones and Joe 11Goode, together with a vibrant new generation of American dance-makers 12who are responding to the amazing growth of dance companies and their 13audiences from coast to coast.
14Most of all, the optimism and sheer daring that have long marked 15American dance are alive and well from New York to San Francisco, from 16Miami to Seattle, and from Houston to our capital in Washington, D.C. They 17are alive in Mark Morris’s cheery iconoclasm, in Lar Lubovitch’s invention, in 18Michael Smuin’s jazzy abandon, in Broadway’s newfound love of dance, in 19every daring bit of performance art that tries to redefine what dance is and what it is not. American 20dancers today represent the finest, most exciting, and most diverse aspects of our country’s cultural 21riches.
22The phenomenal aspect of dance is that it takes two to give meaning to the phenomenon.
23The meaning of a dance arises not in a vacuum but in public, in real life, in the magical moment 24when an audience witnesses a performance. What makes American dance unique is not just its 25distinctive, multicultural mix of influences, but also the distinctively American mix of its audiences.
26That mix is even more of a melting pot as the new millennium unfolds. And it makes for a uniquely 27varied, gripping tale of dance and dancers facing a new era.
28Ours is a constantly changing tradition whose very vitality is what we will bequeath future 29generations: the cowboys and sailors alongside the magical swans and sugar plums, the dances of 30political questioning and the dances of pure joy of movement, the selflessness and optimism, the 31generosity of spirit, the elemental theatrical excitement that is the promise of each rising curtain.
32American dance stays alive by ensuring that it never remains the same, that it is a living tradition, 33the American tradition. Enriching that tradition involves not just looking ahead to the next surprise 34but also looking back with both pride and affection at the giants of American dance who have made 35the future possible. (…)
– lies ahead (line 3) – está por vir.
– century (line 3) – século.
– alive (line 15, 17 and 32) – viva(os), presente(s).
– newfound (line 18) – recém-descoberto.
– arises (line 23) – surge, nasce.
– giants (line 34) – gigantes, “nomes de peso”.
Which of the following words is an adjective?
Pergunta 9 de 10
With the global warming, mosquitoes are everywhere. And this means that microorganisms will be spread to new habitats, bringing diseases to new population.
Mosquito-born-malaria, for example, generally appears in humid regions with average temperatures above 61 degrees Fahrenheit. Global warming and the range of 6 to 10 degrees will increase malaria-carrying mosquitoes on 60 percent of the globe. Climate change is also increasing the range of Aedis aegypti, the species of mosquito that carries both dengue and yellow fever. Another deadly threat is the resurgence of cholera. (There were 5,000 deaths in the 1991 cholera epidemic in South America.) How many will die next time?
“If tropical weather is expanding, tropical diseases will expand.”
(by Dr. Paul Epstein, Harvard School of Public Health – New English Point I, 1999)
Find in the text:
The noun and the verb for the adjective deadly
The verb for the adjective carrying
The noun for the adjective warm
A synonym for the verb expand
Pergunta 10 de 10
Sealed with a Kiss
A long-lost early Christian text says Jesus asked Judas to betray him.
Even Jesus recognized that there was s o m e t h i n g paradoxical about his betrayal by Judas Iscariot – in three of the four canonical Gospels, with a kiss. Judas is damned for helping bring about the salvation of mankind. And Jesus knows all along that he will sell him out. We’ve always known that there was a Gospel of Judas. The Gospel was in vogue for a few hundred years, then disappeared from history – until last week. This Gospel tells us that Judas was Jesus’ only true disciple, to whom he imparted secret mystic knowledge, and whom he asked to turn him in to the Romans, in order to free his spirit from its fleshly prison.
Judas’ betrayal of Jesus has sparked considerable anti-Semitism over the centuries, and the new Gospel may help Christians see beyond ancient – and historically unfounded – stereotypes .Or it may simply add to our sense of how inchoate and multifarious early Christianity was. But right now, people are loving the idea that Jesus and Judas were dear friends who were in it together.
Newsweek, April 17th, 2006
Which group of words below, from TEXT , is made up of ADJECTIVES formed by adding suffixes: